2009 was the European Union’s year of the Competition Commission. Through a host of antitrust violations filed against technology companies, the European Commission finalized a $1.3 billion penalty against Microsoft for giving customers no Internet browser choice with Windows, as well as a $1.45 billion penalty against Intel for abusing its dominance in the computer chip market.
Microsoft played nice with the Commission. Intel did not, and subsequently challenged its penalty in the EU’s second-highest court, the Luxembourg-based General Court. Finally, five years later, Intel received its answer: a resounding “no.”